PaaMano Eskrima & Performing Arts
"Honoring the artist & warrior ancestors of the Philippines"

Our Inspirations 

Jose Rizal was born José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda on June 19, 1861 in Calamba City, Laguna, Philippines.

Jose Rizal was the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is regarded as the foremost Filipino patriot and is listed as one of the national heroes of the Philippines by National Heroes Committee. His execution by the Spanish in 1896 was one of the causes of the Philippine Revolution.

He attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, earning a Bachelor of Arts, and enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas. He continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid in Madrid, Spain, earning the degree of Licentiate in Medicine. He also attended the University of Paris and earned a second doctorate at the University of Heidelberg.

Rizal spoke twenty-two languages. He was a prolific poet, essayist, diarist, correspondent, and novelist. Wrote two novels, Noli me Tangere and El filibusterismo. These novels were social commentaries on Spanish rule and inspired peaceful reformists and armed revolutionaries for a change in the politics of the Philippines.

He formed La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that gave birth to the Katipunan led by Andrés Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of achieving Philippine self-government peacefully through institutional reform rather than through violent revolution, although he would support "violent means" as a last option.

The general consensus among Rizal scholars is that his execution by the Spanish helped to bring about the Philippine Revolution.

Rizal’s translations and annotation of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Historical Events of the Philippine Islands), the Spanish official Antonio de Morga’s seventeenth-century account of the conditions obtaining in the country before and during the Spanish conquest. Although not familiar – even among present-day Filipinos – as Rizal’s Noli and Fili, his edition of Morga was no less important.

While his Noli revealed the decline of the fatherland under the destructive effect and exploitation by Spanish colonization, in contrast Rizal’s edition of the Morga sought to awaken among his countrymen the consciousness of their past and the advanced state of the Filipinos prior to the coming of the Spaniards, their early accomplishments as well as their ethnic and cultural links to other Malay peoples.

Rizal was at pain to show that the pre-Hispanic Filipinos had a system of writing, bodies of costumes, traditions and usages. Filipino artisans, like Panday Pira, had forged cannons and built seagoing vessels as few others did in Southeast Asis. Agriculture and industry – like the growing of cottons, the weaving of cloth, the mining of gold and other metals, even the export of silk to Japan where today the best silk comes from – existed prior to the Spanish colonial conquest. Pre-Hispanic Philippines appeared to be at one of the crossroads of Asian trade, and its products reached other countries of Asia.

Rizal’s preface to his edition of the Morga closed with the following words to his countrymen:

“If the book succeeds to awaken your consciousness of our past, already effaced from your memory, and to rectify what has been falsified and slandered, then I have not worked in vain, and with this as a basis, however small it may be, we shall be able to study the future.”

Jose Rizal was implicated in an 1892 rebellion and sent into exile in Dapitan in rural Mindanao, where he proceeded to build a school, a hospital and a water supply system.

When Independence was declared by the Katipunan movement in 1896, Rizal decided to go to Cuba as the Cuban Revolutionaries were also in rebellion against Madrid. He was arrested by Spanish authorities en route to Cuba and sent back to Manila for trial. He was convicted of sedition, rebellion and conspiracy and sentenced to death.

His execution was carried out by firing squad on December 30, 1896. He was 35 years old.

The day before his execution he wrote an untitled poem and hid it in an alcohol stove and later handed it to his family with his few remaining possessions, including the final letters and his last bequests. The poem was later titled “Mi Ultimo Adios” or “My Last Farewell”.

When the United States was debating the Philippine Organic Act of 1902, which was to lead to some limited self-governing, Representative Henry Cooper of Wisconsin read an English translation of Rizal’s poem known as “Mi Ultimo Adios”. After the speech, the US Congress passed the bill into law which is now known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902. It created the Philippine legislature, appointed two Filipino delegates to the US Congress, extended the US Bill of Rights to Filipinos, and laid the foundation for an autonomous government.


Princess Urduja ancient accounts say, was a 14th century woman ruler of the dynastic Kingdom of Tawalisi in Pangasinan, a vast area lying by the shores of the Lingayen Gulf and the China Sea. Pangasinan was an important kingdom then, and the sovereign was equal to the King of China. Known far and wide, Princess Urduja was famous for leading a retinue of woman warriors who were skilled fighters and equestrians. They developed a high art of warfare to preserve their political state. "These womenfolk took to the battlefields because the male population was depleted by the series of wars which came with the rise and prominence of the Shri-Visayan Empire in the sixth to the 13th centuries," the accounts said. Strong and masculine physique, they were called kinalakian or Amazons.

The saga of this unique princess was the stuff of legend. Parents and teachers tell her story like they would a fairytale, or the biography of Gabriela Silang, an 18th-century revolutionary, or Tandang Sora, a granny who fed members of the Katipunan.

The legend of Princess Urduja can be attributed to the famous story of Mohammedan traveler, Ibn Batuta of India. In 1347 he was a passenger on a Chinese junk, which has just come from the port of Kakula, north of Java and Sumatra and passed by Pangasinan on the way to Canton, China.

Urduja, who had a particular fascination for the renowed "Pepper Country"--pepper being considered black gold then--was quoted by Batuta as saying, "I must positively go to war with that country, and get possession of it, for its great wealth and great forces attract me."

For a time, feminists tried to revive the Urduja story but were discouraged to learn that Batuta's account of the voyage to Tawalisi was labeled as either an intrigue or a fantasy. Scholars, considering the story absurd, declared Urduja a myth.

The Philippines' national hero Dr. Jose Rizal, in Dr. Austin Craig's 1916 paper

"Particulars of the Philippines' Pre-Spanish Past" was quoted as saying in one of his letters: "While I may have doubts regarding the accuracy of Ibn Batuta's details, I still beleive in the voyage to Tawalisi". He went as far as to calculate the distance and time of travel from the port of Kakula. Rizal's commentary was triggered by a scholar, Sir Henry Yule, who wrote in his time that: "Tawalisi may be found only in a Gulliver geography."

Today, years after scholars have passionately debated whether the 14th-century heroine is a product of mythology or history, Princess Urduja continues to fascinate Filipinos. In Pangasinan, the Governor's office building in the coastal town of Lingayen is called the Urduja Palace. So is a hotel along the highway.

Urduja's name still has great resonance among the Ibaloi, one of the major ethnolinguistic tribes in the Cordillera region. Dr. Morr Tadeo Pungayan, a respected scholar of Ibaloi culture and professor at the St. Louis University of Baguio City, said, "Linguistically, Urduja is Deboxah (pronounced Debuca) in Ibaloi. We've always had a woman named Deboxah from time immemorial among the genrations of Ibaloi. The name usually describes a woman of strong quality and character who's nobly descended. That name is an Ibaloi name. That's why Ibaloi trace their ancestry from Urduja".

The Cordillera tribes, also known collectively as Igorots, pride themselves as being the only ethnic group that doesn't talk about the origin of man according to Spanish chronicles. Among the tribes, genealogy and family history are orally passed history. The Ibaloi, just like other highland tribes, could easily trace their ancestry. This is ensured by their custom of naming newborns after ancestors to help keep their memory alive and evoke affection and protection.

"No Ibaloi will bear the name of an ancestor unless she's related," Dr. Pungayan explained. While the Bontoc tribe bestows the name of an ancestor to a grandchild, the Ibaloi style is namesaking the great-grandchild, he added.

A book on the history of Benguet province, written by Anavic Bagamasbad and Zenaida Hamada-Pawid, shows the Benguet genealogy tracing tribal family lines from the year 1380 to 1899. The book says, "The extent of inter-settlement alliances is climaxed in the memory of Tublay informants with the reign of Deboxah, Princess Urduja, in Pinga. She's acknowledged as the granddaughter of Udayan, an outstanding warrior of Darew. Her death signaled continuous decline of kinship and alliance between highland and lowland settlements."

The Darew mountain range is remembered as the earliest settlement in the mining town of Tublay. The close relations between the Cordilleras and Lingayen are well-accounted for in Batuta's chronicle. It said that the Kingdom of Tawalisi was very extensive, including the vast areas up to the fringes of the Benguet mountains and the Cordillera ranges in the east of Luzon.

Th ruler, Batuta further said,"possesses numerous junks with which he makes war upon the Chinese until they sue for peace and consent to grant him certain concessions."

Despite recent research, however, most academicians remain cold to oral history, saying that such accounts still have to pass through stringent rigors of scholarship.

Today, some historians consider the issue of Urduja's historicity as closed. Compounding the issue is the lack of archaelogical evidence on the existence of the Shri-Visayan Empire. In fact, other aspects of Philippine history are being doubted,too, especially since the late William Henry Scott, an American historian in the Cordillera, proved that the so-called pre-Hispanic laws--the Kalantiaw and Maragtas Codes--were faked or invented by psuedo historians who only wanted fame or riches for themselves.

Dr. Jaime Veneracion, the University of the Philippines head of history department, said that the old Chinese scripts which may have chronicled Urduja's kingdom have remained inaccessible for their archaic language and calligraphy.

But history buffs like writer Ed Reyes remain undaunted. He says: "The researchers aren't conclusive, given the fact that the Philippine history has only been covered in writing for the last 500 years".

By Chit Balmaceda Guiterrez
Filipinas Magazine June l999 -

Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat (1580-1671)

Defender of Islamic Faith and Philippine Liberty In about 1580, just a few decades after the Spaniards landed in the Philippines, the son of Rajah Buisan and Princess Imbeg of Jolo, Dipatuan Kudarat, was born in Lanao del Sur. In 1619, he succeeded the throne from his father. Trained in leadership and warfare during his childhood, the new Sultan proved to be brave, intelligent, and cunning in leading his people and enlarging the territory of his kingdom. By 1626, he gained control in most part of Mindanao except for Dapitan, Cagayan de Oro, and Caraga while Misamis and Bukidnon became his tributaries. A cunning Sultan, he controlled the lucrative slave market and he refused to sell slaves to the Dutch traders on the principle that people converted to Islam could not be sold as slaves. One who could not be pressured by interference, he made treatise with the Dutch for them to recognize his sovereignty. He did the same thing with the Spaniards many years later. When the Spaniards built a fort in Zamboanga in 1635, Sultan Kudarat knew that it would be deterrent to his absolute rule. He felt that he had to forestall the massive invasion of the Spaniards in Mindanao, thus, he attacked that coastal villages in the Visayas and forged a stronger tie with other Muslim leaders by marrying one of his sons to the daughter of the Rajah of Sulu. The Spaniards, realizing Sultan Kudarat’s power, sent out expeditionary forces to stop him. Governor Hurtado de Corcuera led the first expedition in 1637 and attacked Lamitan, Kudarat’s capital, but the sultan retreated to Ilihan. There the pursuing Spanish forces caught up with him. Consequently, a fierce battle, which lasted for two days, ensued. Kudarat was wounded in the battle so he retreated with his remaining warriors to seek refuge in Sabanilla, which, however, fell to the Spanish forces under Major Pedro del Rio in 1639. The Spanish forces failed, however, to capture Sultan Kudarat, who managed to seek refuge in Maranao and had rallied other Muslim datus to fight the Spaniards. In 1642, Major Agustin de Marmolejo, a Spanish naval officer, led an attack Kudarat’s forces in Simuay but was strongly repulsed. Only him and six of his soldiers survived after the battle. Because of this, the Spanish governor, shamed and infuriated, ransomed Marmolejo and had him tried by the military court on alleged disobedience to military orders. The trial resulted to Marmolejo’s public execution at the presidio of Zamboanga. Sultan Kudarat remained unfazed. He became more powerful when other Muslims pledged him allegiance. The Iranun datus pledged him support; the Basilans were invited to make settlements in Sibuguey; the Malanaos upheld his leadership; the people of Sagir, Sarangani and along the Davao Gulf became his vassals. The seafaring people in Barong, Suaco and the Kuran area in Northeast Borneo also paid him tributes. On June 25, 1645, Spanish Governor Fajardo, tired of waging war that were all unsuccessful, signed a treaty with Sultan Kudarat through Father Alejandro Lopez. The pact allowed the Spaniards to trade and the missionaries to minister to the needs of Christians at Tamontaka, which is within the Sultan’s domain. The pact also recognized his rule over the whole of Southern Mindanao except for the settlements of Bansayan, Taraka, Didagun and the Lanao area. As a pandita or a spiritual leader, it was his moral responsibility to protect his religion , claiming that a person could attain salvation whether he was a Muslim or a Christian; the opposite of what Jesuit Father Alejandro Lopez was proselytizing that only Christians could be saved. This issue on salvation was one of the factors why Father Alejandro was killed in 1655. Three years after the priest died, Sultan Kudarat declared a jihad or holy war against Spain for its deliberate actions to crash the Islamic faith. During his reign, he bravely defended and maintained the independence of his people from the Spanish authorities. His kingdom boomed in agriculture, trade and commerce. The great and respected Sultan of Southern Mindanao died before 1660. Hundred of years since then, Sultan Kudarat is still remembered not only in history books but also by the structures or places that were named in his honor. In 1973, a town in Cotabato was created and was named Sultan Kudarat. In the same year, his monument was erected in Ayala Circle in Makati, Manila and part of its inscription reads: “Unable to conquer Kudarat, the Spanish Governor signed a pact with him that led to several years of peace. He was a fearless fighter and Filipino Hero in Defense of the Islamic Faith and Philippine Liberty.”

Reference: Eminent Filipinos. Manila: National Historical Commission, 1970. Filipinos in History. Manila: National Historical Institute, 1989. Quirino, Carlos. Who’s who in Philippine History. Manila: Tahanan Books, 1995.

Reposted from Cotabato City ~ Published On: Fri, Dec 23rd, 2011

"Many desperate acts of courage and heroism have fallen under my observation on many fields of battle in many parts of the world. I have seen forlorn hopes become realities. I have seen last-ditch stands and innumerable acts of personal heroism that defy description. but for sheer breathtaking and heart stopping desperation, I have never known the equal of those Igorots riding the tanks. Gentlemen, when you tell the story stand in tribute to those gallant Igorots." _Gen. Douglas MacArthur.

The Haring Ibon ~ the Philippines Eagle

The Philippines Eagle or Haring Ibon is a critically endangered species. They are the longest eagle and one of the largest varieties in the world.  It is the only eagle with blue eyes and blue beak. Scientists estimate that there are about 100 to 150 Haring Ibon remaining in the wild. PThe Philippine Tarsierlease take a look at this organization working to save the Eagle and its habitat.

The Philippine Eagle Foundation: Focusing on the Philippine Eagle for the conservation of nature.

The Philippine Eagle Foundation is a private, non-stock, non-profit organization dedicated to saving the endangered Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) and its rainforest habitat.  Organized in 1987, it had before that time been operating as a project undertaking research, rehabilitation, and captive breeding.  Staffed by highly trained and dedicated personnel, it has today evolved into the country’s premiere organization for the conservation of raptors.


The Philippine Eagle Foundation firmly believes that the fate of our vanishing Philippine Eagle, the health of our environment, and the quality of Philippine life are inextricably linked.  We are therefore committed to promote the survival of the Philippine Eagle, the biodiversity it represents, and the sustainable use of our forest resources for future generations to enjoy.


In 1965, Dr. Dioscoro Rabor, a noted Filipino scientist alerted the world of the bird’s endangered status. Ignored by most of his compatriots, he was able to elicit the support of the famous aviator, Charles A. Lindbergh who helped champion the cause. In 1969, the Monkey-Eating Eagle Conservation Program was established.Interest in pursuing the program soon diminished with the death of Charles Lindbergh. During this period, work on the eagle was sustained through the initiatives of Peace Corps volunteers in cooperation with the Philippine government’s Parks and Wildlife Office.In 1977, one of the Peace Corps volunteers, Robert S. Kennedy returned to the Philippines to study the eagle further. He also successfully lobbied for the Office of the President to change the species’ name from “Monkey-eating Eagle” to its present name, the Philippine Eagle.In 1987, the project started operating as a private institution. Financial constraints did not hinder the staff from pursuing its mission. They waived their salaries for over a year in order to feed the eagles, ensure that fieldwork continued and carry on the great mission of saving the magnificent bird.

The dedication and effort invested into this work eventually paid off. In 1992, the Foundation successfully produced the first two Philippine Eagles hatched and bred in captivity. The birth of Pag-asa (Hope) and Pagkakaisa (Unity) caught the world’s attention and eventually led to the subsequent outpouring of public support and sympathy that helped revitalize the effort to save the species.

A link to the website for more information about the foundation:

The Philippine Tarsier
On average, it weighs only about 120 grams, and in height measures no more than 100 millimeters, but has a tail considerably longer than its body (189 to 293 millimeters for males). The tail is an integral component of the animals locomotive system, functioning as a kind fifth limb. Its eyes are almost twice as large as those of humans but incapable of seeing from the corners; and its head, can rotate up to 180 degrees, enabling it to leap backward with high precision. Moreover, with the help of adhesive discs on the soles of its fore and hind limbs, the tarsier clings to branches either vertically or horizontally. A nocturnal creature, the tarsier normally sleeps during the day and wakes up at sundown. Like the tree shrew and the slow loris, it has low basal rate and temperature and an insectivorous diet. It feeds on crickets, beetles, termites and other insects as well as on vertebrates lizards, small fishes, young birds, frogs and mice crabs, ingesting them live.

The Philippine tarsier is extremely shy and nervous; despite its cuddly looks and proportions, it does not like to be touched,. Those taken in captivity seldom survive or reach full maturity. Fifty years of attempts to breed the specie under controlled conditions locally and abroad have thus far met with very little success. Yet unenlightened foreign tourists and collectors have persisted in smuggling them home as pets.
On Bohol in the Central Visayas region with which the Philippine tarsier has most closely identified, only several hundred of the specie remain. After many years of environmental neglect and ignorance as to its importance for the island’s ecosystem and the country’s biodiversity, help is finally underway to protect and revive this unique and living treasure. For more information on conservation goto


(1731 – 1763) First Heroine of Ilocos

Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang is known as the first Filipina to lead an uprising against a foreign power.

She was born in the barrio of Caniogan, Santa, Ilocos Sur, on March 19, 1731. Her father was an Ilocano peasant from Santa and her mother, an Itneg household maid from Pidigan, Abra. A Spanish friar, Provisor Tomas Milan adopted her and brought her up as a Christian.

She grew up to be comely lass, pious and possessed a charitable character. At the age of 20, she was forced to marry a rich old man who died after three years, leaving all his wealth to her.

She met Diego Silang y Andaya, who was then a young and dashing mail carrier between Vigan and Manila. He fell in love with the attractive widow and, after five years of courtship, they got married in 1757 and eventually established their home in Vigan. For five years they lived happily although they did not have any children.

The people of Ilocos, burdened with high taxes and forced labor were chafing at their grim situation. They were waiting only for a leader who was sufficiently religious and who at the same time had a political solution to their plight. Diego Silang, with the ideas he brought from Manila, fitted their need. They rallied behind him as the emerging liberator. On December 14, 1762, he proclaimed the independence of his people and made Vigan the capital of Free Ilocos.

He proved to be an able leader, but his success was short-lived. The Spanish authorities, hailing to crush him by force of arms, hired assassins. A mestizo named Miguel Vicos, aided by Captain Pedro Becbec, who were both Silang’s trusted friends, shot him at the back with a muskey on May 26, 1763.

Gabriela, widowed for a second time, assumed leadership and carried on the war against Spain. She was assisted by Silang’s uncle Nicolas Carino and other loyal lieutenants of her late husband namely Sebastian Andaya and Manuel Flores.

She sent a plea to the Itnegs, the people on her mother’ side, to come down from the mountains to assist her. They responded, rekindling tribal ties. When she was driven out of Vigan with the remnants of her lamented husband’s army in Pidigan, Abra, the home of her mother, the Itnegs were solidly with her. Pidigan became the capital of the Free Ilocos government –in – exile.

She recruited more freedom fighters, especially Itneg archers. From her new bastion, she launched sorties against the garrisons on the coastal towns. These were dispatched and placed in strategic places to ambush her forces.

By the first week of September 1763, Gabriela, astride a prancing horse, led the march towards Vigan. Her bolo brigade, supported by Itneg archers, assaulted the city defenses. But the disciplined defenders, commanded by trained Spanish Officers and supported by artillery, rolled back the attack. Her army was badly beaten.

She retreated towards the unexplored regions of Abra and the Mountain Province. But the Spanish military men and an army of Apayao under Don Manuel de Arza pursued her. The villagers were not to extend assistance and “they were promised reward in the event of information that would lead to her capture.”She and 80 loyal soldiers were captured in the hinterlands. Brought down to the Ilocos seacoast, they were hanged, one by one, all along the coastline from Candon to Bantay to serve an example to those who would defy the right of Spain.

After making her witness to the heroic end of her faithful followers, Gabriela was publicly hanged on September 20, 1763 in Vigan. She died with a calm courage. Thus ended the heroic life of this fighting widow, the Joan of Arc of Ilocandia, and the short – lived independence of the Ilocano people.

References: Quirino, Carlos. Filipinos at War. Philippines: Vera – Reyes, Incorporated. 1981.

Roces, Alfredo ed. Filipino Heritage: The Making of a Nation Volume 5. Quezon City: Pilipino. 1977.

Zaide, Gregorio. Documentary Sources of Philippine History Volume 5. Manila: Bookstore Incorporated. 1990

Reposted from NHI Philippines Government PDF.

Lapu Lapu

Lapu Lapu was the chieftain of Mactan, an island in the southern part Philippine archipelago, during the pre-Spanish era in 1521. Lapu Lapu is highly regarded as the first Filipino warrior to have resisted against Spanish rule. Moreover, Lapu Lapu is considered as the first Filipino hero.

According to oral accounts that had been passed from generations, Lapu Lapu resembles a man of great power. He was as strong and as skillful as anyone in his village. At the tender age of six, he already showed remarkable skills that were essential to be a village chief during those early times. Lapu Lapu was also said to have displayed an outstanding degree of intellect. At age seven, Lapu Lapu already knew how to read and write proficiently, and, during his 20's, he had already experienced and won tough battles against Bornean marauders and pirates who were unfortunate enough to land on Philippine soil.

Thus, Lapu Lapu's early life has been stirred with controversy as some historians argued with the authenticity of the oral accounts that were somehow similar to modern folklore and legend stories.

Nevertheless, stories concerning Lapu Lapu's famous battle against Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan were well documented by European explorers, specifically Sebastian Del Cano and Antonio Pigafetta, two of Magellan's most trustworthy "sobrasiliente."

In 1521, the Spanish fleet led by Magellan reached the Philippine archipelago and started their mission towards God, gold and glory; propagating Roman Catholicism, finding substantial economic resources and putting Spain ahead in the race as the world's most powerful country.

Despite the warm welcome of other Cebuano Datus, Lapu Lapu was indifferent with the Spanish voyagers. Magellan sent emissaries to Lapu Lapu, convincing him to be converted to Christianity, but the latter disapproved of the notion. Thus the famous Battle of Mactan ensued.

Lapu Lapu's forces, numbering about 1,500, although lacking in arms and ammunition and relying only on their spears and primitive weapons, were just too much for Magellan and his 49 soldiers.

Stories regarding Lapu Lapu related that he was a man of unusual strength and power over his subordinates. Even before the Battle of Mactan, Lapu Lapu was respected and feared by the inhabitants of nearby villages. He was chosen by the other Datus as the leader of the confederation and alliance of several other villages in Cebu.

Lapu Lapu's death also covers a lot of intrigues. There were no accounts that relate to his death. Hence, native legends claim that Lapu-Lapu did not die but was turned into stone and is forever guarding the island of Mactan.

Biography: Lapu-Lapu by John Louie Ramos for

"Those Gallant Igorots"

A War Department communique was reported by Time magazine during the last days before the fall of Bataan in the Philippines.

With his battle-weary and outnumbered troops facing imminent collapse under the ever-increasing and ferocious Japanese onslaught, Gen. MacArthur in his weekend communique included the dramatic story of non-christian Igorot native tribesmen who after stopping an attack in hand to hand combat with the enemy, counterattack by riding atop the tanks to guide the American drivers inside.

Hampered by the dense undergrowth and lost in the confusing maze of bamboo thickets,vines and creepers, the tankers would have been impotent had it not been for the aid of the Igorot troops of the 2nd Battalion, 11th infantry.

Hoisted to the top of the tanks where they were exposed to enemy fire The Igorots chopped away the entangling foliage with their bolos and served as eyes for the American tank crew,firing with their pistols while guiding the drivers.

"When the attack was over,"said the General, "the remnants of the tanks and of the Igorots were still there, but the 20th Japanese Infantry Regiment was completely annihilated...

"Many desperate acts of courage and heroism have fallen under my observation on many fields of battle in many parts of the world. I have seen forlorn hopes become realities. I have seen last-ditch stands and innumerable acts of personal heroism that defy description. but for sheer breathtaking and heart stopping desperation, I have never known the equal of those Igorots riding the tanks. Gentlemen, when you tell the story stand in tribute to those gallant Igorots." _Gen. Douglas MacArthur.    
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